Mandating vaccine good
But the fact that the new legislation is coercive does not make it ethically impermissible.
Similarly, the risk of future outbreaks of infectious diseases that pose a risk to the life or the health of other people is a sufficiently strong reason to limit parents' freedom of choice regarding whether or not to vaccinate their children.If herd immunity is a public good that benefits everyone, everyone has a moral duty – based on a principle of fairness – to contribute to it.So mandatory vaccination policies, such as the one recently introduced in Italy, would guarantee that everybody make their fair contribution to an important public good such as herd immunity.The second reason why mandatory vaccination is justified is based on the fundamental principle of fairness.On the basis of this principle, everybody should make their fair contribution to important an public good – that is, something from which everybody benefits. We have herd immunity when a sufficiently large percentage of the population (typically between 90 and 95%) is vaccinated against a certain disease and the disease is therefore very unlikely to spread.
There are two types of ethical justifications for mandatory vaccination.